Neuro Urology pertains to the Urological problems arising out of imbalance between the neural circuitry involving the stimulus driving the sensation of urine, its perception and ultimately the expulsion of urine by bladder contraction.
In simplistic reasoning the bladder is akin to a inflatable and self expelling balloon the function of which is collection, reservoir and emission of urine outside.
The commands of each of these functions is driven by the neural impulses transmitted in the respective nerves communicating from the bladder right upto the brain.
These disorders can occur in patients with diabetes mellitus, spinal chord diseases, myelodysplasias or following various affliction of the brain.
These diseases are tough to diagnose, need dedicated evaluation on their merit and may require extensive testing including Urodynamic Study and Cystoscopy and other procedures. In addition, there are radiological adjunctive procedures that may be needed.
The treatment is guided at preventing damage to kidneys by reflux to kidneys. This may need time tested Clean Intermittent Catheterization or simple measures such as frequent voiding.
More elaborate treatment includes medical therapy, cystoscopy or endoscopy and intradetrusor injection of botulinum injection.
Novel therapy such as sacral nerve neuromodulation using interstim. This is a staged procedure needing long lasting pacemaker for the nerves for the sacral nerves.